Modern Architecture: simplicity and functionality

Modern architecture denotes the set of architectural currents that have developed throughout the twentieth century from technical changes, social and cultural linked to the industrial revolution.

This artistic revolution had its origin in the Bauhaus and its main development in the modern movement linked to the International Congress of Modern Architecture (1928-1959).

Although the origins of this movement can already be sought in the late nineteenth century, with figures like Peter Behrens, its boom occurred from the late 1920 by architects such as Walter Gropius,Frank Lloyd Wright, Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier y.

Hitler came to power in 1933, resulted in the departure of many architects and developers began to extend the principles of this movement to other countries.

This movement is principally characterized by absence of ornament, the simplification of forms and disappearance of classical academic composition, which was replaced by an aesthetic with references to the various trends of modern art (cubism, neoplasticismo, futurism, etc.). One of the most significant changes was the use of new materials such as steel and reinforced concrete.

arquitectura moderna

We can distinguish two main trends: the rationalist functionalism and organicist. The first is characterized by a preference for simple geometric shapes with orthogonal criteria. It is the purification of the already oversaturated, leaving only the essentials, the practical and functional for every situation. On the other hand, organismic functionalism is a philosophy of architecture which promotes harmony between human habitat and the natural world.

In the last decades of the century saw a radical questioning of modernity through its deconstruction, and architecture that was played through movements and post-modern architecture called deconstruction.

Deconstructivism born at the end of the decade 1980 characterized by fragmentation, nonlinear process design, interest in the manipulation of ideas and surface structures, ostensibly, non-Euclidean geometry (for example, non-rectilinear shapes). These techniques serve to distort and dislocate some of the basic principles of architecture as the structure and the building envelope.

 

 

 

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